The Government of the Republic of Indonesia

State Philosophy

Indonesia is a democratic country that applies a presidential system and Pancasila is the soul of the Indonesian democracy. Pancasila is the philosophic fundamentals of the state. Pancasila consists of five principles that are interrelated and inseparable, namely:

1. The belief in one God
2. A just and civilized humanism 

3. Unity of Indonesia
4. Democratic citizenship lead by wise guidance born of representative consultation
5. Social just for all the people of Indonesia

Provinces

Indonesia has 33 provinces (including 2 Special Territories of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Yogyakarta) and one Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI). East Timor was once part of Indonesia, but then through a referendum in 1999, East Timor became the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste.

Demography

The population of Indonesia can be divided into two major groups: in the western region most of the people are from the Malay ethnicity while in the eastern region there are the Papuans originating from the Melanesian Islands. Indonesia also recognizes specific ethnic groups that come from a certain province/area and have specific language for example the Javanese from Central or East Java, the Sundanese from West Java or the Batak ethnicity from North Sumatra. 

In addition, there are also minority ethnicities derived from Chinese, Indian and Arabic descendents. These people travelled as merchants through trade exchange since the 8th century BC and migrated to Indonesia. Approximately 3% of the population is from Chinese ethnicity, although the exact percentage is not known as the last ethnicity census was held in the 1930s.

Islam is the major religion of 85.2% of the population, designating Indonesia as the largest Moslem country in the world. The remaining population consists of Protestants (8.9%); Catholics (3%); Hindus (1.8%); Buddhists (0.8%) and other religion (0.3%).

Politics

    

As in other democratic countries, Indonesia applies the Trias Politica that recognizes the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The executive institution is centralized under the president, vice president, and the cabinet of ministers. The cabinet is a presidential cabinet in which the ministers report to the president and do not represent the political parties.

The legislative authority is under the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) that consists of two bodies namely the Parliament composing of members of political parties and the Regional Representative Council (DPD) composing of representatives from each province in Indonesia. Each province is represented by 4 delegates that are elected by the people in the respective region.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. Upon the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution, the membership of the MPR starting the period of 1999-2004, was amended to include not only the members of the parliament (DPR) but also the members of the DPD. Formerly the MPR consisted of the parliament members and group representatives. Currently, the MPR has 550 members from the parliament and 128 members from the Regional Representative Council (DPD). The parliament members and the DPD members are elected every five years. Since 2004, the MPR has become a bi-chamber parliament with the DPD as second chamber.

The judicial institution -since the reform era and upon the amendment of the 1945 Constitution- is administered by the Supreme Court including the administration of the judges.

Economy

Indonesia has abundant natural resources outside Java including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Despite being the second largest exporter of natural gas, Indonesia recently has become a net importer of crude oil. The agriculture products of Indonesia include rice, tea, coffee, spices and rubber. The major trade partners of Indonesia are Japan, the United States of America and neighboring countries namely Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. In the 1990’s, Indonesia’s economy experienced a set-back as a consequence of the economy crisis that hit most Asian countries. However, the economy is now relatively stable.

 

 

The South Korean Government under President Moon Jae-in`s administration is trying to strengthen South Korea`s diplomatic relations with Indonesia and other ASEAN member countries, said Choe Won-gi, Head of the Korean National Diplomatic Academy.
The North Maluku Cultural Heritage Preservation Office (BPCB) will collect data on prehistoric cave paintings existing in 36 caves on Kisar Island, Southwest Maluku District, Maluku Province, on Nov 14-28, 2018.
President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) held a bilateral meeting with Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc on the sidelines of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank (WB) Annual Meeting in Nusa Dua, Bali.
World Bank President Jim Yong Kim said he appreciated Indonesia`s commitment to host the annual meeting of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank after it was repeatedly hit by major earthquakes and tsunami.
President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) has outlined four priorities in handling efforts to rescue and assist victims of the magnitude-7.4 earthquake and a subsequent tsunami in Palu, Donggala, Sigi, and Parigi Moutong districts, Central Sulawesi Province.
The world did not need to seek a superhero in realizing world peace besides a global leadership of all nations and shared responsibility, according to Indonesian Vice President Jusuf Kalla.
Strong consolidation needed to face global economic turbulence Reporter: Agus Salim 3 hours ago President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) addressing at a ceremony commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin) on Monday night. (Agus Salim) Jakarta (ANTARA News) - President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) reminded the country`s fiscal and monetary authorities and the business of the need for strong coordination and consolidation to face the global economic uncertainties. "Uncertainties in the global condition, trade war between the United States and China, increase in interest rate, crisis in Argentina and Turkey, would necessitate strong consolidation and coordination between the monetary and fiscal authorities and the business sector," Jokowi said addressing a ceremony commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin) here on Monday night. He said good coordination and consolidation would make it easier to develop the public and market confidence. "It is the same as in developing a corporation. Trust brand is vital. The state needs that. Building up trust and market confidence that the international communities, domestic market believe that we are working seriously to settle state problems," he said. He said Indonesia is a big country with a population of 263 million, the fourth largest in the world, having 17,000 islands and made up of 34 provinces. "It is not easy to manage such big country . Each area has own cases, and requirement different from each other," he added. He said developing Indonesia concerns not only economic and political aspects. "If we are concerned only with economic and political gains we need only to focus on development of Java, which is home to 60 percent of the country`s population, but we think of a nation. We are concerned not only with expanding business empire leaving Papua, North Maluku, NTT and other eastern Indonesian regions to suffer in backwardness," he said. Currently imbalance is still wide in infrastructure between the country`s western, central and eastern regions, he said, adding Indonesia is seeking to catch up with other countries. He cited three years earlier, Indonesia had only 231 water reservoirs and dams as against 6,000 dams in the United States and 110,000 dams in China. "This is fact that has to be presented and we have to do something about it," he said. He also spoke about progress made in the construction of toll roads saying after the Jagorawi toll road was operational until early 2015, Indonesia had only 780 km of toll road as against China`s toll roads totaling 280,000 km. "We need to know the condition we are in before we start working hard to make up for the gap especially in eastern Indonesia," he said. Reporting by Agus Salim Editing by Albert Saragih Editor: Bustanuddin COPYRIGHT © ANTARA 2018 AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to Google+Share to WhatsAppShare to LINEShare to PinterestShare to GmailShare to EmailShare to More Prev News Indonesia calls for reconciliation and justice for peace Next News Puan attends UN meeting on world peace Comments
President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) reminded the country`s fiscal and monetary authorities and the business of the need for strong coordination and consolidation to face the global economic uncertainties.
Indonesia continues to promote technical cooperation programs developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
An international seminar themed SEAMEO Education Agenda for Sustainable Southeast Asia was organized by Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO), in cooperation with the Indonesian Education and Culture Ministry, here, on Wednesday.
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